Everyone would prefer a "pretrib rapture" to a "Great Tribulation." Conveniently, Revelation 3:10 promises to keep "thee" from a global hour of testing for all on earth which sounds just like the Great Tribulation. But who is "thee"—believers today or of another time? The passage's "audience" is what determines that or who the originally intended recipient of the message was. Ignoring the audience of Bible passages is a major source of false doctrine that deceives us and even puts us in bondage. You don't want to keep transgressing this rule! Read on for three common Christian examples of misapplying audiences to help you to avoid that mistake yourself. Plus the answer to who alone was promised absolute keeping from the Great Tribulation...
People frequently ask me how to study the Bible. How does one go about making sense of it systematically? That's not a simple question. The Bible is neither short nor simple and the meaning of its many passages is surrounded in controversy. It is enough for most people to give up in frustration.
The only way I know to penetrate the Bible's mystique and controversy is the way I did it myself. I came to understand the Bible's mysteries which had puzzled me since I was a boy by reading everything I could get my hands on. In time, I found a few good solid answers. After much trial and error, common characteristics of good answers emerged. These characteristics pointed to certain keys of sound interpretation of the Bible. I have expressed a couple of these keys in my site's main article on understanding Revelation: the keys of literal interpretation and the prophetic “feasts of the LORD.”
Since writing that article, I have become more focused on another key. I had known about and followed it earlier, but lately, I have come to see how more universal and helpful this key is for Christians and Bible students. If you want to keep out of bondage to the false doctrine taught in many congregations and on the Internet, you need to become aware of and pay attention to this rule. It is the rule of paying taking care to understand the audience of a passage.
The Revelation 3:10 Unconditional Promise of Escape from Great Tribulation
What finally triggered my writing about this old key, was this reader's question:
I would like your opinion on Revelation 3:10. I am sure you have had to respond to this many times as any pretribber would question. The Greek translation is to "keep OUT of the hour of trial" not keep through.
Revelation 3:10 happens to be one of the main proof texts used to argue the "pretribulation rapture,” the only rapture position that most Christians have ever heard of. I have had the honor of introducing many Christians to “this post-tribulation rapture” through my site based on their emails asking me to tell more about it. I have seen how when they get exposed to the actual Biblical evidence for the real timing of the rapture, they often change their mind about the pretrib rapture.
But it does not end there. Leaving the pretrib rapture position means you have to reconsider the meaning of many verses previously understood as pretrib rapture proof-texts. Revelation 3:10 is one of the more popular ones because it states a pretty clear promise of escape from the Great Tribulation:
Revelation 3:10 (KJV) — Because thou hast kept the word of my patience, I also will keep thee from the hour of temptation, which shall come upon all the world, to try them that dwell upon the earth.
Note well that this statement is an ironclad promise of exemption from the coming worldwide temptation. This group had already fulfilled the condition of keeping Jesus' word, therefore they are promised this complete escape. It's not a conditional promise anymore. It is a unique, unconditional promise of being completely "kept" from the Great Tribulation. Contrast that with Jesus' conditional offer of escape through based on praying and seeking God's face and help for strength and perseverance:
Luke 21:36 —But be alert at all times, praying that you may have strength to escape all these things that are going to take place and to stand before the Son of Man.
Matthew 24:13 — But the one who perseveres to the end will be saved.
See the difference? Jesus speaking to the final end time group who will see the Great Tribulation tells them to pray and seek strength to endure until the end for survival. This already begins to cast doubt on the idea that Rev 3:10 refers to a pretrib rapture escape for believers when the Great Tribulation comes. He implies strongly that we'll go through it and need to be strong to do that, not be kept from it completely. When you understand who this "kept from" promise actually refers to, this contradiction will be resolved.
Pretribber Assumptions About Revelation 3:10
How does this Revelation 3:10 "prove" a pretribulation rapture? The assumption is made that this promise pertains to all believers. In other words, if anyone "keeps Jesus' word," then he does not have to worry about anything in the Book of Revelation that follows because Revelation 3:10 says so!
This type of assumption on the audience is, in my experience, the #1 cause behind erroneous doctrine among Bible believers. It is the mistake of overlooking the specific audience of a given passage and transferring it to a universal audience of "all believers" who read it in their Bible. People believe such interpretations easily because Christians easily imagine that most everything in the Bible applies to them directly. (Or at the very least, seeing the Old Testament as obsolete, everything in the New Testament applies to them.)
Notice another mistake going on with this pretrib interpretation of the passage. It equates general Christian acceptance of Jesus as "keeping my word." As I cover in another article this is a grave error on its own. Accepting Jesus into your life is not the same thing as keeping his word; it's actually only the start. You have to then learn what he taught and then do what he said (Lk 6:46). See my other article on Rapture Requirements based on Jesus' words for that important topic.
Examples of Ignoring Audience
Getting back to audience, it is easy to come up with several examples of false doctrines that come from breaking this rule of audience. No doubt you have heard other believers state one or more of the following Bible teachings:
- Alcoholic Abuse Justification: “The Bible teaches in 1 Timothy 5:23 that we should drink wine because it is good or good for health or at least good for digestion.” [1 Timothy 5:23 Don’t continue drinking only water, but use a little wine because of your stomach and your frequent illnesses.]
- Required Reproduction: “The Bible teaches in Genesis 1:28 and 9:1 that Christians should get married and have children, preferably many.” [Genesis 1:28 (ESV) And God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth and subdue it... 9:1 And God blessed Noah and his sons and said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth.]
- Required Tithing: “The Bible teaches in Malachi 3:10 that Christians should tithe 10% of their income to their local church or be cursed.” [Malachi 3:10 (ESV) Bring the full tithe into the storehouse, that there may be food in my house. And thereby put me to the test, says the Lord of hosts, if I will not open the windows of heaven for you and pour down for you a blessing until there is no more need.]
In all the above examples, the verses in question have been misused to justify or require some activity. And in each case, the teaching can be disproven by going back to who the original audience of the recorded message was and why it was said to them.
Let's look at each verse in context to find and restore the audience and with it the proper interpretation.
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Alcoholic Abuse Justification – 1 Timothy 5:23
You may know people who drink too much who use this verse to justify it. I will let the MacArthur New Testament Commentary explain how this verse is a very personal aside from Paul to Timothy in the midst of his more generally applicable teaching:
Verse 23 is a personal note, a parenthetical aside to Timothy in which Paul clarifies his exhortation to purity in verse 22. By calling for Timothy to remain pure, Paul was not advocating a rigid asceticism. He did not want Timothy to injure his health, and so encouraged him to no longer drink water exclusively, but use a little wine for the sake of your stomach and your frequent ailments. Timothy had obviously committed himself to total abstinence from wine. He desired to be a model of spiritual virtue and never establish a pattern that could make someone assume a liberty that would destroy them (cf. Rom. 14:13-23; 1 Cor. 8:12-13). Paul instructed him not to let that commitment injure his health. Water in the ancient world was impure and the carrier of diseases such as dysentery. Paul's advice to use a little wine would help safeguard Timothy's health from the sickness-producing effects of polluted water. It was also in keeping with the medicinal use of wine in the ancient world. The Talmud, Hippocrates, Pliny, and Plutarch all spoke of the value of wine in countering stomach ailments caused by impure water (Gordon D. Fee, New International Biblical Commentary: 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus [Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1988], 135). By advocating the temporary, curative use of wine, Paul does not ask Timothy to alter his commitment to the highest standard of behavior for leaders (cf. Num. 6:1-4; Prov. 31:4).
Audience: Timothy, with a stomach ailment
Required Reproduction – Genesis 1:28; 9:1
Many fundamental and evangelic Christians look at these verses as a requirement to marry and have children. Orthodox Judaism followers have large families because of these verses as well. They consider them as the basis for one of “613 commandments” they find in the Torah.
But who was the original audience? The family of Adam and Noah. Both families represented the only humans alive. If they did not multiply, the human race would have died out with them. That is why this command was given to each of them. Of course, it is not true with any of us that if we do not have children that the human race will end. Thus, there is no need for God to command us this. Nor would it be fair universally as we'll see below.
There is another interesting detail about the command if you notice. All the people who heard this command were already married (Adam and Eve, Noah and “Mrs. Noah”, and Shem, Ham, and Japheth and their respective wives)! In other words, they had everything in place to obey that command. Unlike them, the rest of us since the command was given started out single and need to find a partner before we can even attempt to comply.
For this reason, it would be unfeasible for God to even make a universal command about having children. Not every person is guaranteed to ever find a partner. Many cannot and do not. Some people are sterile, asexual, a terror to live with, etc. It takes all kinds and God did not ever expect all to be married and have children, even if they become his servants. Therefore God cannot and did not make a blanket command for all to have children.
Audience: Adam and Eve; Noah and his sons, all married
Required Tithing – Malachi 3:10
Malachi 3:10 was addressed to the Jews who had returned to Jerusalem from their exile in Babylon. Despite their recent punishment for disobedience, they had again become lax in doing what was right. They had neglected to tithe. The produce of their land both animals and crops had been withheld. The food storehouses of the temple where the tithes were to be collected were empty. It was in this scenario that Malachi addressed the Jewish audience to follow the tradition they had been given in the Torah of supporting the Temple (Lev 27:30-32).
They were the only peoples ever commanded to tithe who could also be accused of stealing from God if they did not (Mal 3:8-9). They were accountable to do what they were told or be considered thieves. God never commanded anyone else on this, including followers of Jesus. (If you want to study more about reading about tithing in the Bible according to its proper context and audience see The Tithing Dilemma.)
Therefore, when you know the audience of Malachi 3:10 (and other verses commanding tithing) you find they do not and cannot apply to anyone who reads a Bible.
Audience: post-exilic Jews in Jerusalem after 515 BCE (who already had been taught to tithe)
Why Audience Is So Often Missed
You might have noticed by now that figuring out the audience of a passage is not always obvious just by reading your Bible alone. It usually takes doing some homework. Research into the cultural and historical context of a passage using good commentaries will help. Once that is done, the verse's meaning and purpose should fall into place. It becomes much harder after that to misunderstand or misuse the verse after that.
In other words, you could say that the reason people are able to so easily use verses of the Bible as proof texts for all kinds of false doctrines is because of simple ignorance or laziness. Outside of their grammatical, historical and cultural context, verses can look like they can mean just about anything. Some people are happy to find verses that seem to agree with their position, like the aforementioned heavy drinkers using 1 Timothy, and are not going to be motivated to dig deeper and possibly find an unwelcome truth. But for those who are truth seekers (Act 17:11), with proper research the verses become much more clear, understandable and specific.
“Pretrib Rapture” - Revelation 3:10
Getting back to who it is promised to be kept from the Great Tribulation, let us now look at the context and audience of Revelation 3:10.
Revelation 3:10 is part of the Letter to the Church of Philadelphia (Rev 3:7-13). Philadelphia is one of seven churches addressed with its own letter in Revelation 2 & 3. The complete list of the seven churches includes Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia and Laodicea. The Book of Revelation itself is addressed to these same seven churches (Rev 1:4). The churches were all on an old Roman Empire mail circuit that progressed in the order listed through western Turkey.
Obviously this clear and specific literal audience leaves no room to apply Revelation 3:10 to anyone else.
Audience: The Church of Philadelphia
Seven Prophetic Churches or Church Eras
However, the fact that these letters appear in a prophetic book suggests the possibility that the letters have a dual purpose or fulfillment. They could apply to both the seven literal churches of that day and to future churches that would share similar characteristics.
One theory is that instead of seven future churches, the seven churches represent seven successive “church eras” that would exist between Christ's First and Second Comings and come in the same order listed. These church eras would have different centers due to the changes over time in where the Gospel (and Bible) is flourishing.
This makes a lot of sense when you consider a few points from the seven letters:
- The first era, Ephesus, mentions apostles, specifically those who call themselves such but are not. No other church letter mentions them. The apostles, of course, died out soon after the first century, a time period that would only coincide in a "first church era."
- The last era, Laodicea, best describes the modern Christian religion centered in America (and other Western Nations). We have the richest standard of living and, just as this did to King Solomon, a distracted and backslidden spirituality suffering from materialism. The cares of life have corrupted this generation and it is in need of better works, better teaching, and more sacrifice.
- The sixth era, Philadelphia, gives a perfect description of the Great Tribulation in “the hour of testing that is going to come over the whole world to test those who live on the earth” (Rev 3:10). It promises Philadelphia will be kept from it. This is fitting since the sixth era must end and give way to the seventh and last era, the only one to witness the Great Tribulation and return of Christ. If the seven churches represent only the literal first-century churches in Asia, then is it not true that all of them were kept from the Great Tribulation since all these churches are gone now?
If there are seven church eras, then it is very fitting that the one church era promised that it would be kept from the Great Tribulation is the sixth, or second to last one. The rest of the Bible is plain about the rapture happening after the Great Tribulation or Antichrist rules (Mt 24:29-31; 2Th 2:1, 3).
In light of this, the only people that could be promised that they would not see the Great Tribulation would be of a church era that ends before the era of the Great Tribulation comes. If there were a pretrib rapture, then it would make more sense for the promise of keeping the church from the Great Tribulation to be given to the last or Laodicean era, the one during which it comes.
The One Way To Stay Out of The Great Tribulation
Whichever way you lean towards interpreting Revelation 3:10, the weakest approach is to change its audience to "believers today" to support a pretrib rapture escape from the Great Tribulation. You could try to say that it represents a group of true-blue faithful “Philadelphia” believers concurrent with six other kinds of believers in the end times. But the other letters have pretty positive things to say about their churches, too. It's hard to imagine God not letting some of the other “classes of end-time believers” escape the Great Tribulation, too.
This leaves us with the conclusion that the only way to fulfill the promise to keep Philadelphians from the Great Tribulation is through the ending or passage of that era. In other words, the way they escape the Great Tribulation is through dying out before it comes. Quite bluntly, I have to say that the same applies to all of us. The only way you and I will be kept from going through the time of trial coming over the face of the earth is through our life ending first.
This concept of being saved from trouble through death sounds wrong or strange at first—until you see that it is a recurring theme in the Bible. First and Second Kings, among my favorite books of the Bible, have a few examples of it. An otherwise or previously wicked king is sometimes granted a reprieve from disaster. The judgment is simply held off until he dies and his son takes over. For example, this happened with Solomon due to his backsliding with his pagan wives and their pagan gods. Nothing happened in his lifetime for the sake of his righteous father David. Instead, his son Rehoboam suffered the loss of the northern tribes who seceded from Judah (leaving the Kingdom of Judah and the Kingdom of Israel, or the so-called Two Houses).
Isaiah also expresses a similar principle about God letting the people pass to save them from evil times:
Isaiah 57:1 (HCSB) — The righteous one perishes, and no one takes it to heart; faithful men are swept away, with no one realizing that the righteous one is swept away from the presence of evil.
As you can see, this is a common strategy God uses to deliver on his promise to keep people from a distasteful time that they do not deserve or received mercy over.
Revelation 3:10 is often quoted to support the pretrib rapture doctrine or an escape from the Great Tribulation for all believers. However, like most verses, it has a specific, limited audience. Making the verse a proof text for the rapture requires ignoring this audience. Disregarding a passage's audience is the most common cause of the erroneous conclusions and false doctrines that Christians espouse. In fact, it leads to some of the most damaging doctrines in Christianity that have believers in bondage today (like the bondage of thinking God requires you to give 10% of your income to a church). Learning how to recognize audience and other aspects of the context of a passage will help you avoid being deceived by misuse of the Bible.
The audience for Revelation 3:10 is the Philadelphia church of the First Century or the prophetic church era that already ended before our current Laodicean era began. Our final, backslidden, Laodicean church era is the one awaiting the Great Tribulation. We must die prematurely or go through it. In other words, the Bible teaches that the only way to be kept from the time of trouble coming over the face of the earth is to reach the end of your time before the end times.
Note: If you are concerned after learning that you will have to face the Great Tribulation, see my previous articles on God's purpose of the rapture and why God lets the bride through it. Or better yet, understand God's end-time plan to lead the faithful to escape the Antichrist's Great Tribulation right here under their noses on the earth.
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Bon, the tithe in ancient Israel was food given to the Levites, not to God, not to Gentiles or Christians. http://askelm.com/tithing/Reply
On this day Dec. 7th 1941 I’m thinking about my grandfather, who was at Pearl Harbor and all those in his generation. They’ve been described as the greatest generation with not too many left today. I know they weren’t perfect, but compared to today’s immoral generation they ‘look’ like saints. The youngest of them is 89 now. Just like the words o the old hymn, “Oh, Mary don’t you Weep “one of these days about 4 o’clock, this old world’s gonna roll and rock” its on Youtube. Johnny Cash and Burl IvesReply
All your articles resonate so loudly, but this one needs to be heard by all who consider themselves believers or Disciples. This very concept of “Audience” is what changed my life – my whole outlook on “Christianity” and eventually brought me out of religion and deception back in the late 2000s…and lead me to a much stronger relationship with my God & Savior. Eventually I was lead to you and your book (Escape), which put together all was trying to put together on my own…with extremely limited time as I own 2 small businesses.
I thank God for you and your faithfulness to be the Watchman on the wall for all of us!Reply
What a great revelation in your article. I’ve never heard it taught anywhere else.
But I believe New Testament believers should tithe. Jesus did and He is our example. Romans 3:21-31 talks about how we have righteousness through faith and not through following the law, but verse 31 adds “Do we, then, nullify the law by this faith? Not at all! Rather, we uphold the law.” I believe tithing is one of the ways God increases us. As we give, it is given back to us. I’ve been on both sides of the fence and when I tithe, even sacrificially, it makes a very big difference in my life.Reply
Helen, thanks, but Jesus did a lot of things and not all of them are “our example” like dying on a cross or keeping Chanukah or healing everyone. We have him for an example of love and compassion to copy, not to copy every single thing he did, yes?Reply
Well written, Tim.
I’ve been studying this for years right from when I stood on the doorstep of the World Wide Church of God in 1982, but deciding not to enter.
I have also studied what David C. Pack has written about it. His is another house which I have kept my distance from. Regardless, another verse which supports the duality of the seven churches is Rev 2:10; “…and for ten days you will have tribulation.” This can be pointing to the 10 year persecution from AD 303 to 313, beginning with the reign of Emperor Diocletian.Reply
I always look forward to reading your Friday articles. Thank you.
As for this article, you make some valid points that certainly should be considered but isn’t there possibly another way you could interpret the 7 churches of Rev 2&3? Couldn’t you say those 7 churches back then represent all the churches of all times down to the present?
Therefore, you could interpret this promise of being kept from Tribulation applying only to Philadelphia type believers. So, if you are a Philadelphia type believer from any era, you are covered by this promise of being kept from the hour of trial (tribulation) if that hour happens to be in your era. The real benefit of this application is for each individual to take inventory of their lives, priorities, and commitments. Where do you fit in? Are you a Philadelphia believer who is faithful to both reading and applying God’s word, or are you an Ephesus believer who has lost your first love (God), or are you a backslidden lukewarm Laodicean believer?
If you are NOT a Philadelphia type believer, beware ….you are now forewarned. The Tribulation may be waiting for you! Anyhow, I’m not saying this interpretation is correct and that yours is incorrect. Just something to consider.
Paul, not quite. There are redundancies in the 7 churches. They are not seven distinct “church types.”
Also, it does not matter how righteous or “Philadelphian” you are when the Great Tribulation comes to the earth: you will be on the earth for it. You won’t be kept from it like the real Philadelphians are who I think pass the baton to our Laodicean church era last century.Reply
It’d be really nice if you could get this info out to a lot of sites pushing pre-trib rapture.
My fear is a lot of believers being letdown when things don’t turn out as expected. Also, those motivated by self-preservation only are missing the point.
Thanks for the article.
I agree with most of the article but you left out Jesus tell us to pray to be counted worthy to escape Luke 21:36Reply
John, that was not the focus of the article, but you missed the linked article on exactly that topic about escaping by strength and faith.Reply
The letters to the seven churches was written by Christ, So, this is not John interpreting anything. They are Christ’s observations (things done well and things not done well). At the end of each letter, there are different adjectives of Christ – that are unique to each situation. There are also the words “He that hath an ear, let them hear” – meaning everyone who reads these letters should learn from each church. Though they are in order of time, there is evidence of these same ways of thinking, acting, behaving and adhering even today. Though Laodicia is very characteristic of today’s common evangelical church, Christ was clear that only those who are a “Overcomer” ( a true believer in Christ) will avoid having their lamp stands removed from the Bridal Dinner that will occur in heaven during the time of the Tribulation. There were TWO “churches” (or, characteristics of Overcomers) that were going to miss the Tribulation: Smyrna – the Persecuted Church, and Philadelphia. Nothing wrong was mentioned of either. We need to look at the whole body of work and as Overcomers, learn the way we can serve in the Spiritual Battle that will culminate at the end of the Tribulation with the actual Second Coming of Christ – when he returns with his Bride – us Overcomers.Reply
David, Smyrna didn’t escape tribulation, far from it (Rev 2:10). Only Philadelphia is promised escape from a unique “global time of testing” (Rev 3:10). The way we escape as Laodiceans is to be repent, seek gold refined in the fire and become more like the Philadelphians and less like our Laodicean, 20th/21st century spoiled heritage.Reply
Although all scripture is profitable for learning (2 Tim 3:16), this article on the importance of “audience” resonated with me.
Even looking back at the verse quoted above, God doesn’t say “must” be used.
I am about to read”Misreading scripture with western eyes” bu Richards & O’Brien.
That will undoubtedly add to this perspective.
Thanks for sharing the insight, Tim.
Is there more you could write on the principle of “audience”?
Thanks for commenting, Sue. Yes I could write more and certainly will in the support team area because the next book that is coming from this area needs to address the misconception of the Bible that people have.Reply
Where is in Bible does it say we dont have to give tithe to God?Reply